Grain-Size Effects In Nanoscaled Electrolyte And Cathode by Christoph Peters

By Christoph Peters

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Ohmic resistances are 21 2 FUNDAMENTALS considered as independent from current load and time-invariant. 2). voltage Uth: theoretical cell voltage overpotential fuel utilization ohmic losses U0: open circuit voltage (OCV) activation polarization UN: Nernst voltage UC: cell voltage polarisation losses concentration polarization current density j Fig. 12 Schematic plot of voltage versus current density of an SOFC [88, 90] showing different types of polarizations: activation polarization is dominant at low current densities; concentration polarization is dominant at high current densities when the transport of reactive species to the electrolyte / electrode interface becomes a limiting factor for the cell reaction [88].

4 (□, Fig. 18), its value drops parallel to the concentration of ⎡⎣Co•Co ⎤⎦ (■, Fig. 16). 3. For larger values of x, higher ionic conductivity values are determined experimentally (○, Fig. 18), which correlates with the increase of ⎡⎣ VO•• ⎤⎦ with x (●, Fig. 16). e. non-localized electron holes are considered to occupy a partially filled electron band [132]) or by the hopping of electron holes localized at the cobalt ions [109]. The first transport mechanism implies a negative temperature dependence of the electron-hole mobility, the latter a positive one.

11 where α is the polarizability, V the volume of the unit cell and ε0 the permittivity of free space. Whereas α is given by electron and ion polarization and is almost independent from Y2O3 doping, the volume of the lattice changes upon phase change [56]. During the transition from m → t, the unit-cell volume decreases yielding an increase of εr. From t → c, the volume change entails a decrease of the dielectric constant. As an example, Thompson et al. [56] found the relative permittivity εr to alter from about 23 over 42 to 40 upon change of the crystal structure from monoclinic (pure ZrO2) over tetragonal (3YSZ) to cubic (8YSZ).

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